In most cases, when a US citizen applies for a United States passport, the passport is simply sent to the applicant once it is prepared, provided that the applicant is qualified to receive a United States passport. In rare cases, however, an applicant has qualified for a passport but a passport never arrives in the mail. In situations such as these, it is very important to file Immigration Form DS-86 (Statement of Non-receipt of Passport). Form DS-86 allows immigration officials to see that there is a problem and to respond quickly. There are many reasons why it is very important to file Form DS86 if you have applied for a passport but have not received one as expected in the mail:
1) If you have already applied for a password and one has been issued to you but you have not received it in the mail, you cannot simply reapply for another passport. This can cause delays and complications which can affect your travel plans and your ability to enter and exit the United States. If you have been approved for a passport but have not received the passport, the correct procedure is to file Immigration Form DS 86.
2) USCIS Form DS-86 lets you prevent identity theft. In rare cases, criminals try to steal or circumvent passports being mailed to applicants. Criminals can then use these passports for identity theft or in order to allow illegal immigrants and even criminals to enter the United States under assumed identities. Identity theft can have serious consequences. If a criminal uses your identity by using your passport and is caught, you may have authorities question you and you may have a criminal record in your name. It can be expensive and time-consuming to prove that you have not been involved in the crimes, especially if you do not file USCIS Form DS-86 and no proof of identity theft exists. As well, if someone uses your passport, your name could unwittingly be used to promote crime or illegal immigration, something which you may not want. In some cases, criminals can even use the information in your passport to apply for credit on your behalf, leaving you with bills and a ruined credit rating. To ensure that you do not become the victim of identity theft, it is important to file Form DS-86. By filing Form DS86, you are starting a paper trail which proves that you have been the victim of identity theft. If you are victimized, this can help you clear your good name.
3) There may be a problem with your application. In rare circumstances, it is possible that there was error with your application which has led to your being rejected for a passport. It is important in these cases to file Form DS-86 rather than risk not being able to reenter the United States after you travel.